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中国代表团团长、商务部俞建华部长助理在世贸组织第四次中国贸易政策审议第二日会议的发言

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2012年6月14日 日内瓦


尊敬的主席先生、尊敬的鲁戈瓦比扎副总干事、
尊敬的讨论引导人施密特大使、
各位大使、各位代表:


  在6月12日的会议上,成员和我们的讨论引导人,尊敬的施密特大使就上次审议以来中国的经济贸易政策提出了许多客观、中肯的观点、评价和意见。我愿在此向这些代表团和施密特大使表示感谢!
今天,我想先就成员在发言中普遍关心的一些问题进行回应。

  一些成员注意到秘书处报告中说,过去两年中国进口和吸引外资的政策变化不大。还有一些成员感觉中国的改革进程出现了停滞。这个印象是不正确的,可能是成员与以前中国落实加入承诺时的情况进行了对比,因为那时候每年都会有新的发展。

  事实上,在多哈回合陷入僵局,全球贸易投资自由化进程受挫的情况下,过去两年,中国不仅没有停下深化改革和对外开放的步伐,相反,改革和开放在以更大的决心、更大的力度在各个重要和关键的领域稳步扎实地向前推进。

  我在12日发言中已经列举了中国过去两年,包括最近两个月采取的一系列改革开放措施,包括税收制度的改革、人民币汇率形成机制改革、利率市场化的推进、自主采取低于最惠国税率的暂定税率、在医疗卫生、旅游、保险、证券等服务领域进一步扩大开放,全面修订《外商投资产业指导目录》等等。

  今天,我还可以再补充一些,比如预算制度改革继续推进,内外资企业和个人的税收制度在2010年底实现了完全统一,国有企业改革继续深化,2011年国有资本收益的收取比例进一步提高。

  最新的举措也有,比如,5月22日,财政部发布了修订后的《政府采购品目分类目录(试用)》。这个新修订的《目录》根据世贸组织《政府采购协定》,将中国的政府采购按货物、服务、工程3大类划分了各级分类,以推进政府采购体制的改革,适应中国加入《政府采购协定》谈判的需要。

  中国两年来改革开放举措的更多详细情况,成员可以参阅我们提交的《政策声明》。我想强调指出,中国的这些努力,是在国际金融危机冲击下,国际大环境并不十分理想的情况下做出的。因此,它更加体现了中国政府坚定不移坚持改革开放政策的决心。我必须强调,这些都是在中国履行了加入世贸组织承诺的基础上的新举措。这些积极进展理应得到这个主张公平、公正的组织的认可和欢迎。

  关于中国扩大内需的举措和内需外需之间的关系,主席先生,这是我们《政策声明》的重点内容之一。中国一直以来都在为此进行艰苦努力。

  过去两年,中国实现经济再平衡的努力已经取得积极成效。

  一是内需和外需、以及内需中投资和消费对国内生产总值的贡献率正在发生积极变化(《政策声明》第27段)。二是中国农村居民人均收入增速连续两年高于城镇居民的人均增幅(《政策声明》第39段)。三是中国货物贸易顺差和经常项目顺差在国内生产总值中的比重呈持续下降态势(《政策声明》第56段)。

  关于中国贸易投资体制的透明度问题,主席先生,不断提高透明度是中国政府深化行政体制改革的重要内容之一。上次审议以来,中国政府继续推进了这方面的工作。

  在成员一直比较关心的立法公开征求意见问题上,利用互联网公开征求意见的做法在中国进一步普及。特别是,国务院行政法规和各部门的规章草案,对贸易投资有较大影响的,目前都通过国务院法制办公室和各部门的官方网站统一公开征求意见。全国人大常委会在其官方网站上也建立了法律草案的征求意见系统。

  在具体的贸易投资政策措施方面,商务部有关进出口管理、贸易救济和外国投资的规章和公告都清楚及时地在官方网站发布。它们还与其他部门发布的与贸易有关的政策措施一起,在《中国对外经济贸易文告》上汇集刊登。在通报方面,除了补贴,中国基本上都履行了通报义务。补贴通报滞后是世贸组织普遍存在的问题。中国政府正在克服情况多样、能力不足能困难,积极开展工作,建立相关机制,建立上下一致、经常性的通报制度。

  关于补贴政策,作为世贸组织成员,中方在这个问题上的原则和态度很清楚,那就是按照世贸组织规则来办。

  关于补贴政策的透明度,现在,中央层面补贴通报的工作机制已经建立并开始了有效运作。接下来,就是要把工作逐步向地方延伸,培养地方的人才,争取尽快将地方补贴情况纳入未来的补贴通报。

  关于中国的标准和认证体系,主席先生,采用国际标准是中国经济现代化过程中将长期坚持的基本政策。中国早从1980年以来就一直积极将国际标准作为技术法规的基础。截至2011年底,相关领域国家标准采用国际标准和国外先进标准的比例已经达到68%,远超出中国加入世贸组织时承诺的50%的水平。

  根据TBT协定,在采用国际标准问题上,例外情况是允许存在的;而且对于发展中成员,也不应期望其一定使用不适合其发展、财政、贸易需要的国际标准作为其技术法规或标准的依据;此外,在一些领域,目前还不存在相关国际标准,或者,在什么是TBT协定下的国际标准问题上还没有定论。在这种情况下,我们认为,不能因为中国在某些领域未遵从某些成员的标准,就认定中国在搞自己独有的标准体系,不符合TBT协定的要求。

  关于外资企业参与标准制定问题,实际情况是中国欢迎外资企业参与中国国家标准化活动。中国包括《国家标准管理办法》在内的有关法规规章中,没有对外资企业参加技术委员会以及国家标准制定修订活动进行限制。目前,有外资企业代表参加的技术委员会的比例已经达到至少25%,涉及制造业、服务业和农业的120多个标准化领域。

  中国在标准和认证体系问题上将始终保持开放的态度,愿意就具体案例与各成员进行深入交流,争取更多共识。
中国也支持世贸组织就TBT协定下的国际标准问题继续进行讨论。

  关于中国在TBT和SPS领域通报义务的履行问题,主席先生,中国是世贸组织TBT和SPS领域提交通报最多的成员之一。总体而言,中国认真履行了这方面的透明度义务。

  至于成员提到的某些法律法规或措施没有及时通报的问题,我了解了一下,主要是因为我们的专业人员与有关成员对它们是否属于协定要求通报的具体技术法规有不同的理解。比如,有一些普遍适用性质的法律法规,我们认为对贸易本身并没有直接的影响,还有一些,涉及的标准为推荐标准,或者已经采纳了国际标准。我认为这些问题都是技术性的。

  为了推动国内与TBT和SPS有关的各个部门更好地履行通报义务。我们准备向秘书处提出技术援助要求,明年在中国举办几期这两个领域的通报专题培训班。今后,我们也愿意与成员就这些技术问题更多地进行交流沟通,这不仅有助于中国,也有助于其他成员更好地履行在TBT和SPS领域的透明度义务。

  关于知识产权保护,中国政府态度十分明确,决心很大,行动很坚决。温家宝总理、王岐山副总理亲自领导、部署这项工作。这是中国的一项国家战略,正在稳步实施。

  过去两年,中国政府不仅进一步完善了知识产权方面的立法,大力推进了软件正版化工作,更集中力量开展了知识产权执法的专项行动,并建立了长期的、常态化的打击侵犯知识产权的工作机制。这些在《政策声明》中已有较为详细的阐述。

  《政策声明》提交后,中国的知识产权保护行动又有了最新进展。5月15日,中国国务院发布了2012年知识产权执法工作要点,其中提到,将在今年开展商标保护、版权保护、专利保护、地理标志保护、网络商品交易、进出口环节、药品化妆品、农资等一系列的专项整治行动,加大打击侵犯商业秘密违法行为的力度,并将保持刑事司法打击的高压态势。主席先生,在不断提高知识产权保护水平的问题上,中国政府将做出长期持续的努力。

  关于出口管理问题,中国确实对一些产品维持着出口管理措施。中国只执行符合世贸组织规则的出口管理措施。

  对高污染、高耗能和不可再生自然资源的出口管理是中国政府在面临日趋严峻的资源和环境压力下,为实现可持续发展而进一步强化的生态环境保护综合措施的一个组成部分,目前不得不采取。在这个问题上,世贸组织争端解决机构已经和正在处理中国与有关成员的争端。中方会在认真评估有关裁决的基础上,按照符合世贸组织规则的方式对这些产品的出口进行科学管理,以实现可持续发展的目标。

  我还要补充一点,中国政府为实现与出口限制措施相同的政策目标,正在不断推进相关领域的改革。中国的资源税改革已经开始启动。开征环境税的问题也已在研究中。中国政府将稳步推进这方面的努力。

  关于农业政策,在中国,处理好“三农问题”对于经济社会保持长期稳定可持续发展具有关键意义。近年来,为加快推进经济结构调整,促进平衡发展,中国逐步加大了对“三农”的支持力度。不过,需要澄清的是,因为中国“三农”政策的重要着力点是要增加农民收入,因此中国的措施是世贸组织中所定义的绿箱措施,对农业生产和贸易没有扭曲作用。

  中国注意到一些成员对中国农业支持政策方向的关注。不过,中国的农业支持措施不管是实施办法还是支持金额,都符合中国在世贸组织中的权利和义务。在非“绿箱”措施方面,中国也是有政策空间的,而且与一些成员提供的补贴和支持相比,中国的支持措施对贸易的影响是微量的。我们愿意就此与成员保持沟通和交流,以增进成员对中国农村情况和农业政策的理解。

  主席先生,除了以上具有普遍性的问题之外,成员在12日还提到了以下一些主要问题。

  关于政府采购,中国一直在努力加快加入《政府采购协定》的进程。中国为此已经提交了三份出价,而且是在两年内连续提交,并已将东部5个经济发达省(市)列入。中国还将在今年年底之前,争取再更新一次出价。与此同时,中国国内政府采购体制的改革也在不断推进。我刚才提到,《政府采购品目分类目录》进行了与《政府采购协定》相一致的修订。这些都已经充分表明了中国加入《政府采购协定》的诚意。

  但是,中国毕竟是发展中国家,政府采购改革不可能一蹴而就。国有企业作为独立的市场主体,其采购和销售并不属于政府采购范畴。因此,我们希望协定有关参加方能够着眼长远,采取灵活务实的态度,与中方共同努力,加快谈判的进程。

  关于贸易救济,中国是遭遇贸易救济最频繁的国家,而且,其中不乏贸易救济措施的滥用。中国对此是坚决反对的。中国自己在采取贸易救济措施时,始终本着审慎克制和负责任的态度,将程序公正、透明度作为重要原则。中国建立了比较完善的贸易救济法律体系,涵盖了立案、抽样、问卷、信息披露和查阅、实地核查、价格承诺等贸易救济程序的各个环节,为程序公正提供了法律上的保障。实践中,中国的贸易救济调查严格遵守世贸组织规则和中国法律,坚持公平合理、程序正当和透明度原则,充分尊重各利害关系方权利,严格依照法律和事实作出客观公正合理的裁决。

  关于成员对中国发起的几起贸易救济案件属于报复性措施的关注,我们认为该论断完全是主观臆断。截至目前,中国所有的反倾销和反补贴调查均是建立在申请人有足够正当理由的基础上。同其他世贸成员一样,中国的调查机关应当在有足够的初步证据的基础上受理申请,并以客观、公正的方式发起调查。

  关于国有企业与民营企业公平竞争的问题,主席先生,中国政府的政策是,非公经济
与公有制经济是相互促进、共同发展的关系,国有企业和其他所有制企业都是市场中平等的竞争主体。中国政府一直,也并将继续大力推进公开、透明、公平的市场和法制环境的建设,为公有制经济和非公经济在平等竞争的基础上协调发展创造条件。

  中国政府大力支持非公经济的发展。有关的政策举措,在此次和上次审议时的《政策声明》中都已有具体描述。最新的一些情况,我在12日的发言中也提到了,交通运输部4月13日出台了关于鼓励民间资本投资公路水路运输领域的实施意见,铁道部5月18日发布了关于鼓励民间资本投资铁路的实施意见,这些领域都已经确认对民间资本全部开放。不仅如此,还有一系列具体领域鼓励非公经济进一步深入参与的实施细则也将在最近密集出台。

  关于服务贸易的进一步开放,作为发展中国家,中国虽然在服务贸易很多领域起步晚,发展水平还比较低,但一直坚定不移地推进服务业的各项改革,提高服务领域对外开放水平。

  2012年1月1日,中国政府启动了旨在促进服务业加快发展的营业税改征增值税的税收制度改革试点。在12日的发言中,我也提到了中国进一步扩大服务贸易开放的具体情况。在不久前完成的《外商投资产业指导目录》修订中,鼓励类增加了农村连锁配送、创业投资企业、知识产权服务、海上石油污染清理技术服务、职业技能培训等一系列的服务贸易条目,服务业在鼓励类中的比重进一步增加。外商投资医疗机构、金融租赁公司等调整为了允许类。加快发展服务业,进一步提高服务业发展水平和在国民经济中的比重,是中国政府的既定政策。

  关于促贸援助,中国代表团十分感谢各成员代表团的友好发言。中国与广大发展中国家互帮互助,是发展中国家相互合作、共同发展的重要途径。中国将继续通过向其他发展中伙伴提供力所能及的帮助,增强他们自主发展能力,提升经济社会发展水平。这方面,中国以伙伴国意愿为基础、与伙伴国协商实施,不附加条件的做法不会改变。

  主席先生,以上是我对6月12日会议上讨论引导人施密特大使和成员提到的一些重点问题的发言。

  谢谢!

[结束语]

主席先生、讨论引导人施密特大使、
各位大使、各位代表:


  刚才我们会上又收到了一些问题和评论,我们将在收到书面问题后准备相关答复意见。

  我很高兴与施密特大使和各成员代表团就上次审议以来中国经济贸易政策的方向和具体内容进行交流。

  在审议会议结束前,我想为过去两天坦诚和丰富的交流,向主席先生您、向各成员代表团、向施密特大使表示衷心的感谢。

  贸易政策审议是世贸组织成员相互评判,保持经济贸易体制和政策透明度的重要机制,中国政府对此十分重视。中国是世界上最大的发展中国家,在实现强劲、可持续、平衡增长的进程中面临的挑战极为复杂。我们希望审议有助于成员增进对中国这个国情的了解,看到中国不断改革,不断开放,不断完善经济贸易体制和各项政策的具体努力。显然,我们从来没有倒退或者停滞不前,我们认为倒退或者停滞不前对中国而言是没有出路的。

  我们认真听取了成员的评论和问题,体会成员希望向中国传递的丰富信息。大多数成员的评论、所提的问题都是建设性的,与我们下一步深化改革、扩大开放的方向是基本一致的。对于这些评论和问题,我们将予以高度重视。还有一些问题属于误解,我们也将继续与成员保持沟通,努力增进相互理解,扩大共识。

  贸易政策审议作为世贸组织的重要职能,我的理解,应该在世贸组织规则基础上进行,要防止泛政治化。但是我遗憾地注意到,在12日的发言中,个别成员却用国家资本主义给中国贴标签。关贸总协定和世贸组织的文件中都找不到国家资本主义这样的概念。这个概念与贸易政策审议无关,与世贸组织规则无关,因此,我们不予接受,我们认为贸易政策审议不能用作服务于国内政治的工具。

  主席先生,只要我们在世贸组织规则基础上友好地,建设性地开展贸易政策审议,建设性地提出评论和问题,不论对被审议成员、审议成员还是世贸组织本身,其意义都要超出审议本身。我们是本着这种理念来接受审议的。以后我们也将抱着相同的理念参加对其他成员的审议。

  在此,我还要再次感谢秘书处所有为此次审议顺利进行而付出辛勤劳动的工作人员,特别是贸易政策审议司的同事、这两天会议的译员、还有把我们厚厚的问题单答复印发到成员手中的工作人员。我们期待着未来继续与秘书处进行富有成效的合作。

  再次感谢各位的关心。谢谢!

Statement by H. E. Mr. Yu Jianhua
Assistant Minister of Commerce, Head of the Chinese Delegation
at the Second Session of the Fourth WTO TPR of China

14 June 2012



Distinguished Mr. Chairman Ambassador Munoz,
Distinguished DDG Ambassador Rugwabiza,
Distinguished Discussant Ambassador Smidt,
Excellencies, dear colleagues,


At the meeting on June 12, Members and our review Discussant, Ambassador Smidt, raised a number of objective and insightful views and comments on China’s economic and trade policy development since the last Trade Policy Review. I want to thank these Members and Ambassador Smidt for their valuable contributions to this review.

Today, I want to start my presentation with responses to those issues of common interest among Members.

Some Members seems to have an impression from the Secretariat’s Report that in the past two years, there was little change to China’s policy on import and inbound investment. A few are worried that China’s reform and opening-up process is coming to standstill. But such an impression is not right and may be due to comparing China nowadays with China some years ago when the accession commitments were being implemented, and there were new developments every year.

As a matter of fact, in the last two years when the DDA was in impasse, world trade and investment liberalization was set back. The Chinese government never held back its reform and opening-up process. On the contrary, the Chinese government has firmly and steadily pushed forward reforms in key areas with greater determination and courage.

In my statement at the meeting on 12 June, I already mentioned a host of policies that the Chinese Government has taken in the past two years to deepen reform and further open up. These include reforms in the taxation system, reform of the RMB exchange rate pricing mechanism, steps towards market-based interest rates, voluntary application of interim import tariffs lower than the MFN rates, new market access opportunities in such service sectors as healthcare, tourism, insurance, securities, and revision of the Catalogue Guiding Foreign Investment in Industries.

Today I can add more to illustrate. Reform of China’s budget system has been advanced. The taxation regulations for domestic and foreign-invested enterprises and also individuals were unified at the end of 2010. Reform of state-owned enterprises has deepened, with dividends payment further increased in 2011.

A latest move that Members may be interested in is that the Ministry of Finance released on May 22 the revised Interim Catalogue for the Classification of Government Procurement, which provides for sub-classification of government procurement of goods, services and constructions based on the WTO GPA. This move aims to further reform government procurement system so as to meet the requirement of GPA accession.

For details of the measures to deepen reform and further open up, Members could refer to the Government Report that we submitted. I want to emphasize that China was making these efforts against the backdrop of the global financial crisis and a volatile international environment. It shows that the Chinese government remains committed to reform and opening-up. I must emphasize these are new measures beyond China’s WTO commitments and obligations. Such progress deserves to be recognized and commended by an organization that advocates equity and fairness.

On stimulating domestic demand and economic rebalancing, Mr. Chair, this is one of the key chapters of the Government Report. China has been making arduous efforts to work in that direction.

The past two years witnessed some outcomes of our efforts to rebalance the economy.

First, contribution by domestic and external demand to the GDP, as well as by domestic investment and consumption as a part of domestic demand to the GDP are changing positively (Para. 27 of Government Report). Second, per capita income rise in rural areas have outpaced that in the urban areas in the last two years (Para. 39 of Government Report). Third, shares of trade surplus and current account surplus in GDP are going downward (Para. 56 of Government Report).

On the issue of the transparency of China’s trade and investment regime, Mr. Chairman, improving transparency is an important part of China’s reform on the administrative system. The Chinese government has continued with its efforts since the last TPR.

On the issue of soliciting public opinions on legislative drafts, it is now a common practice in China to solicit public comments through the internet. In particular, those drafts of administrative regulations of the State Council and departmental rules, which may have direct effects on trade or investment, are posted on the official website of the Legislative Affairs Office of the State Council for public comment. Such public comment system is also made available on the website of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress.

On specific trade and investment policies and measures, regulations and notices by the Ministry of Commerce regarding import and export administration, trade remedy and FDI are published at our official website in a timely fashion. They are also compiled into the “China Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation Gazette” together with trade related policies and measures promulgated by other government agencies. On the issue of notification, China has fulfilled almost all of its notification obligations, except for subsidies. Delay in subsidy notification is a universal problem among WTO members. The Chinese government is working hard to overcome various complexities and insufficient capacity, and is building a mechanism that can ensure regular notification of subsidies at both the central and sub-central levels.

On subsidies, as a WTO member, China has a clear position on this issue, that is, to play by the WTO rules.

On the transparency of subsidy policies, a working mechanism of central government subsidy notification has been established and put into use. What we will do next is to extend our efforts to the sub-central level by training local officials and incorporating sub-central subsidies in the notifications.

On China’s standard and accreditation system, Mr. Chair, China has adopted and will continue to adopt international standards during its modernization. Since 1980, China has always made international standards the foundation for technical regulations. By the end of 2011, 68% of China’s national standards had adopted international standards or advanced foreign standards, far above our WTO commitment which is 50%.

According to the TBT agreement, exceptions are allowed in terms of adopting international standards. Developing members are not expected to use the international standards that are inconsistent with their development, fiscal or trade demands. In addition, in certain areas there are still no international standards, or no consensus on what international standards are under the TBT agreement. In this context, we believe that it’s unfair to say that China is developing its own standards and violates the TBT agreement just because it does not follow the standards of some other members in a few areas.

The issue of foreign-invested enterprises’ participation in the formulation of standards was raised. The reality is that foreign enterprises are welcome to participate in national standardization activities in China. Measures on Administration of National Standards and related laws and related regulations and rules do not at all restrict the participation of foreign-invested enterprises in technical committees or in the process of formulation or revision of national standards. At present, foreign-invested enterprises have participated in at least 25% of the technical committees, covering 120 areas of standardization in manufacturing, services, and agriculture, etc.

China is open on the issue of standards and accreditation and is willing to discuss specific cases with other member in detail to build consensus. China also supports more WTO dialogues on international standards under the TBT agreement.

On China’s notification obligations in the area of TBT and SPS, Mr. Chair, though China is among the members that have made the most notifications. Generally speaking, China has properly fulfilled its transparency obligations.

Some members mentioned that certain laws, regulations or measures were not timely notified. I looked into this and found that the main reason is our staff had different opinions on whether the technical regulations should be notified under the TBT agreement. For instance, some general laws and regulations are considered to have no direct impact over trade, while some have adopted recommended standards or international standards. I think these are technical issues.

In order to push SPS and TBT related authorities to better fulfill the notification obligation, we plan to seek technical assistance from the Secretariat and hold training programs on TBT and SPS notification in China next year. In the future, China will have more exchanges with other members on these technical issues, as it will help both China and other members to better honor their transparency obligation in TBT and SPS.

On IPR protection, the Chinese government has taken a clear-cut position, shown a strong determination and taken decisive actions, with Premier Wen Jiabao and Vice Premier Wang Qishan are at the helm. IPR protection is China’s national strategy and is being implemented steadily.

In the past two years, the Chinese government has further improved IPR legislation and promoted the use of legal software. Moreover, it launched a special campaign on IPR enforcement and put in place a permanent mechanism to crack down on IPR infringement. More details can be found in the Government Report.

We made further progress in IPR protection soon after the Government Report for this review was submitted. On May 15, the State Council released the Working Priorities in IPR Enforcement in 2012. Accordingly, China will carry out special IPR enforcement campaigns on trademark protection, copyright protection, patent protection, geographical indication protection, online shopping, exports and imports, drugs and cosmetics, and agricultural supplies, etc. More efforts will be made to fight infringement of trade secrets, and criminal punishment will have an important role to play in IPR protection. Mr. Chairman, the Chinese government will make sustained efforts to improve enforcement of IPR laws and regulations.

On the issue of export control, China indeed maintains such measures for some products, but all of them are consistent with WTO rules.

Export control on highly polluting, energy consuming products and exhaustible natural resources is a part of our effort to protect the environment and achieve sustainable development under the mounting resource and environment pressure, therefore is necessary at present. The Dispute Settlement Body is now looking into cases between China and some members in this area. China will fully assess the final ruling and adopt sound measures in line with WTO rules, with the view to achieve sustainable development.

There is one thing I need to add, to achieve the same policy goals as export control, the Chinese government is advancing related reforms. The resource tax reform has been launched. The collection of environmental tax is under study. The Chinese government will steadily push forward its efforts in this regard.

About the agricultural policies, to address issues related to agriculture, rural areas and farmers is key to ensure long-term, stable and sustainable development of economy and society in China. In recent years, China has increased input in agriculture, rural areas and farmers to accelerate economic restructuring and promote balanced development. Yet, as a point of clarification, these are Green Box measures aiming at increasing farmers’ income, with minimum distortion of agricultural production and trade.

China has noticed some members’ concern about the direction of China’s agriculture supporting policies. These policies are in line with China’s rights and obligations in the WTO, in terms of either implementation method or the amount of the support. Apart from the Green Box, China also has policy space in other boxes. Compared with the subsidies provided by some other WTO members, China’s support measures have little impact on trade. We are willing to keep communication and exchanges with other WTO members so that they can better understand China’s rural areas and agricultural policies.

Mr. Chairman, in addition to common concerns mentioned above, the following questions were also raised by some members on June 12.

About government procurement, China is working hard to speed up the process of joining the Government Procurement Agreement. To this end, China submitted its third offer within two years and included 5 relatively more developed provinces or municipalities in eastern China. By the end of this year, China will try to renew its offer. Meanwhile, the reform of our government procurement system is progressing. As I mentioned just now, Catalogue for the Classification of Government Procurement was revised in line with GPA agreement. All these efforts are a testament to China’s good faith in joining the Government Procurement Agreement.

Nevertheless, China itself is a developing country and its reform of government procurement is not something that can be accomplished within a short time period. The state-owned enterprises are independent market players whose procurement and sales are not a part of government procurement. Therefore, we hope that participants of the GPA can be visionary, flexible and pragmatic, and work with China to accelerate the negotiations.

On trade remedies, China is the biggest target of trade remedy measures, as well as the major victim of abusing trade remedies. China is strongly against such practices. When China has to resort to trade remedies, we always do it through equitable and transparent procedures with utmost discreet and a sense of responsibility. China has established a sophisticated legal system on trade remedies, covering every link of the whole process, including initiation, sampling, questionnaire, disclosure of and access to information, site visit, and price undertakings. This provides legal guarantee for equitable procedures. In practice, China has strictly abided by the WTO rules and its domestic laws in the investigations, adhered to the principles of being fair and equitable, followed proper procedures and ensured transparency. We fully respect the rights of every stakeholder, and make objective, fair and equitable rulings strictly based on laws and facts.

With respect to the concern that some trade remedy cases initiated by China are retaliatory measures, we believe that this statement is purely speculative. Up to now, all China's anti-dumping and countervailing investigations are initiated on the basis of a duly substantiated claim by the petitioners. As in other WTO Members, China's investigating authority is under the obligation to accept petitions that contain sufficient prima facie evidence and will conduct the investigations in an objective and unbiased manner.

On the issue of fair competition between state-owned enterprises and private enterprises, Mr. Chair, China sticks to the policy that public sectors and non-public sectors of the economy can achieve common development with mutual benefits. State-owned enterprises and enterprises of other ownerships are equal players in the market. The Chinese government will continue to build an open, transparent and fair market and legal environment, so as to create a level playing field for harmonious development.

The Chinese government strongly supports the development of non-public sectors. Related measures have been illustrated in our Government Report for this and the last TPR. As I mentioned on June 12, the Ministry of Transport issued a document encouraging private investment in land and water transportation on April 13. The Ministry of Railways also issued a document encouraging private investment in railways transport on May 18. These sectors are confirmed to be open to private capital. In addition, a host of implementation rules to further promote private capital’s participation in certain sectors will be publicized in the near future.

About the further opening up of trade in services, though as a developing country, China started late and remains inexperienced in many service sectors. However, it has been forging ahead with reform and opening up in these sectors.

On January 1, 2012, the Chinese government launched the pilot reform on converting business tax to VAT for the purpose of accelerating the development of services sectors. Detailed information about the further opening up of service sectors is included in my statement on June 12. In the newly revised Catalogue for the Guidance of Foreign Investment Industries, a series of services sectors including rural chain distribution, venture capital enterprises, intellectual property services, technical services for cleaning offshore oil pollution and vocational training are added to the encouraged industries. The proportion of services in encouraged industries is further expanded. Foreign investments in medical institutions and financial lease companies are adjusted into permitted industries. It is China’s established policy to accelerate the development of service sector, improve its level and increase its share in our national economy.

On the issue of aid for trade, the Chinese delegation wants to express its appreciation to other member delegations for your friendly remarks. The mutual assistance between China and other developing countries is an important way to realize common development for the developing world. China will continue to provide aid to other developing partners to the best of its capacity, help them improve the capability for independent development, and promote their economic and social development. In this regard, China will adhere to its principle of putting first partner countries’ own aspirations, and implementing projects through consultation without attaching any string.

Mr. Chair, this is my response to the major questions raised by discussant Ambassador Smidt and other members.
Thank you.

(Second part)

Mr. Chairman, Discussant Ambassador Smidt,
Ambassadors and fellow delegates,


We have just received some questions and comments in the meeting. We will prepare the answers once we receive the questions in written form.

I am pleased to have discussed with you, Ambassador Smidt and other member delegations, the general objectives and specific aspects of China’s economic and trade policies since the last review.

As the review comes to a conclusion, I’d like to express my sincere thanks to you, Mr. Chair, other member delegations and Ambassador Smidt for the candid and extensive exchanges in the past two days.

The Chinese government attaches great importance to the TPR as it is an essential mechanism that allows WTO members to conduct peer reviews and improve the transparency of their economic and trade system and policies. China, as the world’s largest developing country, faces extremely complex challenges on its path to strong, sustained and balanced growth. We wish, through the review, member countries will gain a better understanding of this reality in China and recognize China’s continuous efforts to reform, open up and improve its economic and trade regime and policies. Surely we will never standstill or rollback. We believe standstill or rollback is a dead end for China.

We listened attentively to your comments and questions as well as the messages you wish to convey. Most of these comments and questions are constructive and consistent with our target of deepening reform and opening up. We attach great importance to such questions and comments. For some questions resulted from misconceptions, we will keep in close consultation with Members to expand mutual understanding and build consensus.

TPR is an important function of the WTO, and I believe that it should be based on WTO rules and should not be politicized. However I note with regret that some member labeled China as practicing state capitalism on June 12. The term cannot be found in GATT or WTO documents. It has nothing to do with the TPR or WTO rules. We strongly believe TPR should not be abused for the purpose of domestic politics.

Mr. Chairman, I believe, as long as we carry out the review in a friendly, constructive manner and give constructive comments and raise questions following WTO rules, the TPR can mean far more than the Review itself to the member under review, to other members and the WTO. That’s the belief we held as we came to this review. And this is the belief we will hold as we come to other members’ review.

Here I want to again acknowledge the hard work of the Secretariat staff for the smooth running of the review, in particular, colleagues from the TPR Division, our translators and interpreters, and staff who printed and handed out the heavy volume of China’s replies to the questions. We look forward to continued fruitful cooperation with the Secretariat.

Thank you very much.

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